Wednesday, 28 September 2011



A microphone is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. In 1877, Emile Berliner invented the first microphone used as a telephone voice transmitter. Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, tape recorders, karaoke systems, hearing aids, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, FRS radios, megaphones, in radio and television broadcasting and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic checking or knock sensors.
Most microphones today use electromagnetic induction (dynamic microphone), capacitance change (condenser microphone), piezoelectric generation, or light modulation to produce an electrical voltage signal from mechanical vibration.



Pop filters or pop screens are used in controlled studio environments to minimize plosives when recording. A typical pop filter is composed of one or more layers of acoustically transparent gauze-like material, such as woven nylon (e.g. pantyhose) stretched over a circular frame and a clamp and a flexible mounting bracket to attach to the microphone stand. The pop shield is placed between the vocalist and the microphone. The closer a vocalist brings his or her lips to the microphone, the greater the requirement for a Pop filter. Singers can be trained either to soften their plosives or direct the air blast away from the microphone, in which cases they don't need a pop filter.
Pop filters also keep spittle off the microphone. Most condenser microphones can be damaged by spittle.

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